HPE 272




Spring 2004

(2nd 5 weeks)







Jerry Gems       W: 637-5502

                        H: 264-1706

Email:               grgems@ncotrl.edu


Office Hours:    MWF   3:00 - 4:00 p.m.

                        T TH    8:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m.


Course Description

 This class will examine the role of art and the artist in society.  It will focus, particularly, on three Progressive Era artists, Thomas Eakins, Frederic Remington, and George Bellows in their various constructions of masculinity.


Course Objectives

1.                  The student will be able to identify the role of art and artists in a society.

2.                  The student will be able to understand the importance of art and artists in the construction of values.

3.                  The student will be able to analyze a work of art within its historical context.



Class Participation                    25 points

Final Exam                               25 points

Final Project                             50 points

                                             100 points

Grading Scale

93-100                         =A                                                       77-79               =C+

90-92                             =A-                                                      73-76               =C

87-89                             =B+                                                     70-72               =C-

83-86                             =B                                                       60-69               =D

80-82                             =B-                                                      Less than 60     =F


Final Project

The student may choose an artist, sculptor, photographer, film, or an individual work of art for analysis in a 10 page (minimum) term paper.  The analysis must include a description of the historical era, a determination of the transitional social changes within that period and their possible influences on the artist or work of art.  The paper must address the artist's or work's treatment of gender construction with supporting evidence in the form of pictures or examples. A final discussion should include a comparative analysis of current artistic or media construction of gender.







Reading Assignments (on reserve)


Week 1:           Michael Kimmel, Manhood in America: A Cultural History, 1996.


            Carol Clark and Allen Guttmann, "Artists and Athletes," Journal of Sport History,

                         22:2 (Summer 1995), 85-110.


            George Kirsch, ed., Sports in North America: A Documentary History,

                        vol. 3, 48-55.


            Gerald R. Gems, ed., Sports in North America: A Documentary History,

                        vol. 5, 50-65.



Week 2:           Helen A. Cooper, Thomas Eakins: The Rowing Pictures, 1996.


                        Michael Hatt, "Thomas Eakins' 'Salutat'" in Kathleen Adler and Marcia Pointon,

                                     eds.  The Body Imaged: The Human Form and Visual Culture Since the

                                    Renaissance, 1993, 57-69.



Week 3:           Alexander Nemerov, Frederic Remington and Turn of the Century America, 1995,

                                     16-21, 53-126.



Week 4:           Marianne Doezema, George Bellows and Urban America, 1992, 1-121.

Course Outline


I.                    The Role of Art and the Artist

A.     Greek Sporting Art

1.      idealization of the male body

2.      exclusion of the female

B.      Comparison of Greek and American Sporting Sculpture

II.                 Historical context - Progressive Era

A.     Industrialization

1.      science

2.      technology

B.      Urbanization

C.     Immigration

D.     Social Darwinism

1.      race

2.      gender

E.      American Cultural Values

III.               Thomas Eakins

A.      Biography

B.     Sporting Works

1.      The Champion Single Sculls

2.      The Pair-Oared Shell

3.      The Biglin Brothers Racing

4.      The Biglin Brothers Turning the Stake

5.      The Schreiber Brothers (The Oarsmen)

6.      Oarsmen on the Schuylkill

7.      Rail Shooting

8.      The Swimming Hole

9.      Taking the Count

10.  Salutat

IV.              Frederic Remington

A.     Biography

B.     Works

1.      The Last Stand

2.      The Charge of the Rough Riders Up San Juan Hill

3.      Fight for the Water Hole

4.      Polo

V.                 Football as Art

A.     Gender Issues

B.     Media Representations

C.     Brutality

VI.              George Bellows

A.     Biography

B.     Works

1.      Basketball

2.      The Knock Out

3.      Stag at Sharkey's

4.      Both Members of This Club

5.      Introducing John L. Sullivan

6.      Dempsey and Firpo




VII.            Sport, Art, and Stereotypes

A.     The Black Body

1.      Sambo Cartoons

2.      Jack Johnson


B.     The Asian Body

1.      1904 World’s Exposition

2.      National Geographic

C.     The Jewish Body

D.     The Female Body


VIII.         Boy’s Literature

A.     Howard Pyle

1.      Brandywine School

2.      The Battle of Bunker Hill

3.      I Had Met My Equal

B.     N.C. Wyeth

1.      Sir Launcelot

2.      The Ledge

3.      Rescue in the Snow

4.      The Scythers

C.     Frank e. Schoonover

1.      SuddenlyA Figure Stood Before Them

2.      Northwest Mountie